Marketing is the science and art of exploring, creating, and delivering value to meet the needs of a profitable target market. Marketing identifies unmet needs and desires. It defines, measures, and quantifies the size of the identified market and the potential for profit.
Have you ever wondered how some companies manage to attract so many customers? What do they do to stand out in the market? Why do their products sell so much while others get stranded?
The secret of success certainly goes through marketing.
Those who dominate marketing know everything about the market: how to position themselves, how to win customers, how to deliver value to their audiences, and, of course, how to generate profit and competitiveness with all of this.
However, we are talking about a set of knowledge, which is not just about selling products. It covers a number of concepts, strategies, channels and methodologies, which are constantly changing over the years to adapt to social transformations.
To dominate the market, then, you have to master this science. That is why we are going to speak now everything you need to know from the traditional Advertising to the Digital Marketing!
In this article, you will learn:
We’ll start by talking about what marketing is. Come on?
What is Marketing?
Marketing is a fairly broad concept. Unlike many people think, marketing is not just selling, nor just advertising. These concepts usually get confused and do not represent everything that marketing encompasses.
To understand what marketing is, then, let’s turn to some names and institutions representative of the area.
The American Marketing Association (AMA), which represents marketers in the United States, has the following definition:
“Marketing is the activity, the set of institutions and processes to create, communicate, deliver and exchange offers that have value for consumers, customers, partners and society in general.”
This definition shows the breadth of marketing design. Note also that the focus of this activity is not to sell products to customers, as many might think.
Marketing works with the generation of value, and this must happen in the perception of the different public about the cost-benefit that the company delivers.
Already The Chartered Institute of Marketing , which represents the area in the UK, defines marketing as:
“The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs at a profit.”
Here’s an important contribution to understanding marketing: customer needs.
They are inherent to the human being – it is not the marketing that creates them. However, this activity must be able to perceive the needs of the people and awaken the desire to supply them.
This definition is in line with what Philip Kotler says in his book “Marketing Management” (which you will get to know better later). In a nutshell, it defines marketing as “meeting needs generating profit”.
These definitions also do not escape the ultimate goal of business: profit. After all, this is what ensures its survival and competitiveness in the market – and that is one of the reasons marketing exists.
But it is worth mentioning that marketing can also be adopted by non-profit organizations – public institutions and NGOs, for example. In such cases, marketing objectives turn to feedback in other ways, such as brand engagement or strengthening.
Now, since we are talking about marketing goals, let’s see a little more about them.
Can you tell what marketing is for? It is deceiving who thinks that it serves only to sell products. The marketing goals can be much more comprehensive and help achieve different results for companies.
Let’s see some of them now.
1. Sell more
Sell: Yes, this is one of the main marketing goals for organizations that place products or services on the market.
It is the role of marketing, then, to prepare strategies for them to meet customer needs and increase the chances of sales success.
2. Customer loyalty
But the role of marketing does not end in selling. The company must remain close to the customer so that he does not forget the brand and re-buy other times.
It is worth remembering a classic phrase: customer loyalty is much cheaper than attracting new buyers.
3. Increase visibility
Another goal that marketing helps achieve is to increase the visibility of the brand and its products.
However, it is no use seeking visibility from an audience that has nothing to do with the company. To optimize investments in marketing, strategies must be focused on the right people: those who are most likely to become customers.
4. Manage a brand
Marketing is all about branding . Building a brand happens in the minds of consumers.
And, for them to absorb the brand image, it needs to make their values and purposes tangible through marketing strategies – in a piece of advertising and in defining the price of products, for example.
5. Build good relationships
Marketing also has everything to do with relationship . By tightening ties with its stakeholders (not just customers, but also partners, employees, etc.), a company can strengthen its brand.
Sales and loyalty are a consequence of this process.
6. Educate the market
Content production is the basis of marketing today. Blog posts, magazine and newspaper articles, social media, and other channels help build brand authority while educating consumers about the solutions the company offers.
The intention is not to sell the product directly, but to show how it can be useful.
7. Engaging employees
Marketing strategies do not just look outside the company. Within its borders, there is an audience that is essential for the success of the business: employees.
Hence, marketing – or rather, endomarketing – can also help engage the inner public, make them happier with their work, and make them brand-propagandists.
The Origin of Marketing
There is no official milestone for the emergence of marketing . But we can say that it exists – not yet as a field of knowledge, but in day-to-day practice – since people exchange goods with one another.
This had happened since the earliest civilizations. But it is in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance Urban and Commercial (around the fifteenth century) that cities begin to grow and consolidate business practices.
Of course there were no marketers yet – even because marketing schools will only emerge in the early twentieth century. But small marketers and marketers are already starting to adopt better ways to “sell their fish” to attract more customers.
Later, in the eighteenth century, the Industrial Revolution began to radically transform society, economy and ways of living in the city.
With the emergence of the factories, some theories and methods of business administration begin to appear , in search of greater efficiency and productivity.
From that moment, with a high production, the challenge was to find demand for the products. Thus, sales and distribution practices begin to be developed – and then we begin to properly enter into the art of marketing.
But it is only in the twentieth century, with the sequel to the Industrial Revolution and the consolidation of the market economy, that marketing is firm.
High competition, demand for new products, and growing cities brought the need to establish a relationship between producers and buyers that would stimulate demand for a company’s products.
But you have to put yourself back then: everything was still very new.
Therefore, marketing did not yet have the vision it has today, to know the public, to segment the market and satisfy needs. The intention was only to sell!
In this context, many malicious practices were adopted to deceive consumers, who eventually bought “cat by hare.” And this has generated a negative image about marketing.
At that time, some scholars also began to analyze the effect of marketing and advertising.
Walter Dill Scott, for example, studied psychology applied to propaganda and its persuasive (even hypnotic) character. He developed advertising strategies that were widely used by companies at the beginning of the century.
It was only later, with the maturing of consumers, that companies began to worry about consumer satisfaction.
Peter Drucker, considered the father of modern management, is one of the authors who directs the focus of business management to people, which already shows that companies should not “sell at any cost.”
Philip Kotler, the greatest reference in current marketing, follows this line. In 1967, he launched his classic “Marketing Administration”, which places this area as a central and vital point for companies.
They should be customer and market oriented, not just look at their own production.
It is with this mentality, then, that marketing arises as we conceive it today. From there, the consumer becomes the center of attention.
But Kotler himself points out that marketing does not stop: it is constantly evolving, because it follows the changing behavior of society .
And if technology is increasingly increasing the speed of change, you can imagine that the pace of marketing is also accelerating.
Now, let’s look at the key facts that marked the history of marketing, which mixes with the history of technology and the media. Let’s go to our timeline:
1447: Gutenberg creates the typographic press, or typography. This invention revolutionizes the diffusion of information and ideals. Luther’s Protestant Reformation, for example, was propagated by the use of the newly invented press.
1609: Germany publishes the first printed newspaper as a periodical. This means of communication will be important, later, to divulge products and services in classified and other advertising spaces.
1730: Magazines also appear as periodicals and become a channel for information, entertainment and publicity.
1880: With the artistic vein of Belle Époque, the posters are popularized as media of diffusion by the streets of the cities. Further on, they will be important vehicles of war propaganda in Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Following the posters, billboards also appear in larger formats.
1920: The radio comes on. At that time, many people put print media in check, since the radio was much more interesting and cheap – they could not even imagine all the technology that was yet to come.
1930: Open television broadcasts begin. If the radio was already a threat to print, TV was seen as the end point of newspapers and magazines (which definitely did not happen). In Brazil, the transmissions happen only in 1950, at the hands of Assis Chateaubriand.
1941: The first TV commercial is on the air. In this medium, advertising gains high power of penetration and persuasion.
1942: Nestlé inaugurates an exclusive channel for communication with the consumer, the Family Collaboration Service. It was the beginning of Consumer Assistance Services (SAC) in Brazil.
1970: Telemarketing becomes a common practice for selling products and services to consumers. Private Automated Branch Exchanges (PBX ) systems allowed businesses to have as many extensions as needed to make the calls.
1981: IBM launches the first personal computer, the IBM PC 5150. This was how the use of digital media by individuals and companies became popular. A little later, in 1984, Apple released its first Macintosh, highlighting the legendary commercial launch that also entered the history of marketing.
1991: Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web . The invention was intended to democratize knowledge. But the web went beyond: it eliminated the frontiers of communication and marketing and accelerated the speed of change in the world.
1995: Amazon and eBay are born, the first online sales sites, which later became e-commerce giants.
1996: The world’s first webmail service, Hotmail, is launched. The service popularizes direct communication between companies and people, but also explodes the practice of spam.
1998: Google is born. It is not the first search engine invented, but founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin innovate by using an algorithm (the PageRank ) that organizes pages by relevance instead of just sorting in alphabetical order as their competitors did.
1998: Blogs come up. Initially, they look more like personal journals. Further on, corporate blogs will become important content marketing tools for businesses.
2000: Google launches Adwords to allow the insertion of sponsored links in the search. This advertising format is a classic of paid internet media, which is still widely used today.
2003: The United States signs the Can-Spam Act, the first treaty against sending unsolicited e-mail marketing.
2004: Mark Zuckerberg launches Facebook, a small university social network that would revolutionize social relations and become a great business platform.
2005: YouTube is launched, which becomes the video giant for the internet. One year later, it is acquired by Google.
2007: Steve Jobs launches the first Apple iPhone. This launch was a milestone to make smartphones better known and for the world to become more mobile.
PAUL SAKUMA / AP 2009: Google Starts Testing Self-Directed Cars – A Landmark for Using Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things.
2015 : Google launches RankBrain, an algorithm based on machine learning to qualify delivery of search results to users.
2015: The concept of Shared Economy arises – represented by businesses such as Uber, Airbnb and Netflix – that introduces a new business model and a new way of consuming.
Phlip Kotler explains in his books that marketing has gone through different phases. This is because the activity follows the evolution of the market, society, technology and, above all, consumer behavior, with whom it must create a connection.
We are currently in the fourth phase, called Marketing 4.0. So we’ve been through Marketing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. Next, you will know what they are about.
But do not think that one stage comes to replace the other. There are still companies living in the previous phases because they have not reacted to the changes.
But Kotler makes it clear that anyone who knows how to adapt to every moment has a better chance of success in the market, okay?
So, follow the evolution now and think about what stage your company is in.
In Marketing 1.0, companies were focused on their production and their products . Basically, they looked only at their own belly button.
We understand the reason for this when we look at the scenario in which this first phase is developed.
We are talking about the first steps of marketing, when there were not so many products on the market, nor so many competing companies, and the consumer was still immature in relation to advertising.
Therefore, there was still no need to worry about brand building, market segmentation, much less personalization.
The solution was simple: to massify the dissemination, focusing on the functional attributes of the products, with media such as TV and radio to maximize visibility.
In Marketing 2.0, we have already noticed an evolution in the perception of companies. They stop looking just inside and realize they need to understand the needs of consumers.
By identifying and serving them, companies would have demand for their products.
At that time, consumers were no longer mass. They are already more mature and demanding with companies, which should rethink their strategies.
So marketing recognizes that they have different needs and desires that their products can meet.
Then the notion of market segmentation arises. The role of this task is to delineate groups of consumers with common interests and profiles, and define a target audience, where strategies will look.
By approaching a specific group, companies reduce competition and decrease spending on mass marketing, which reaches many consumers outside the business customer profile.
In Marketing 3.0, the internet comes on the scene. Society becomes digital, connected, without frontiers. People gain the power to manifest on websites, blogs and social networks and be heard from the other side of the world.
And so the hierarchy of consumer relations is reversed – now consumers are in power.
In this scenario, again, marketing had to adapt. It makes no sense to treat consumers by segments, nor as targets. They are simply human beings who want to be heard.
As humans, consumers become unique. Therefore, companies must create strategies tailored to each person, according to their needs, pains, interests and behaviors.
And to talk to people, brands must also take on human traits. It is in this sense that companies start to define values and principles and become involved in social and environmental causes, demonstrating their humanity and concern for the future of the planet.
Consumers no longer want only companies that sell products – they want brands that make commitments.
If Marketing 3.0 emerges in the age of the internet, Marketing 4.0 is marked by the digital economy. Connectivity has so profoundly transformed society that Kotler has identified the emergence of a new era, as reported in his book “Marketing 4.0: Moving from Traditional to Digital” in 2016.
This is the stage we are currently experiencing, where the internet permeates every moment of our lives. Search, buy, study, talk, inform – for all that, we use the internet.
For businesses, this too must happen. The connectivity is transforming consumer relations, social patterns and power structures. So marketing must also get into digital transformation.
But Kotler is not just talking about creating a Facebook page and sending email marketing, okay?
Marketing 4.0 consists of understanding this new hyperconnected scenario and changing companies’ mindset into a more inclusive, horizontal and social logic.
It’s a much more profound change than getting likes on social networks!
Marketing and Advertising
The advertising is one of the marketing arms, which is part of the Promotion P, within the 4 Ps you’ll meet later in this article.
It is responsible for spreading the company and the products to the consumer public and encouraging them to buy. And this can happen through paid ads on TV, on the radio, on billboards, on social networks, on search engines, and so on.
Marketing is much more comprehensive than that.
It deals with activities ranging from market analysis to measurement of sales results, for example.
In this whole process, advertising is the persuasive tool that looks at the public and helps generate demand for the company.
Marketing and Administration
Marketing is one of the pillars of management, which also depends on people management, finance, logistics, sales, etc. Without one of these pillars, management is incomplete, and the company can not walk.
Kotler shows that marketing, as a central point of business, is directly related to management and should direct its vision, mission and strategic planning. It is not by chance that he works with the concept of Marketing Administration, an expression that gives his classic name a name.
In the perspective of the Marketing Administration, when companies change, the marketing organization also changes. Therefore, marketing has gone through different management philosophies.
See now which were the main ones and how marketing played its part:
It relates to the Marketing 1.0 phase, which we saw earlier. Companies look only inwardly, striving for greater efficiency at the lowest possible cost, and focus on mass distribution.
In this orientation, marketing only deduces what the market needs, without thoroughly analyzing its demands.
It is also related to Marketing 1.0, but the focus is on the product and the overall quality of production.
Marketing is concerned with delivering and delivering products with superior quality and performance by deducing that this is what consumers want.
Here, companies start looking at the market, but are still not worried about understanding their needs.
Marketing is directly linked to sales: it must adopt persuasive language, which makes consumers buy at any cost, since spontaneously they will not. The problem? No one likes to feel pressured.
From here, we are talking about Marketing 2.0, customer centric. Management’s orientation to marketing brings the vision of the market.
First, companies must understand what the market needs; then they must devise the strategies to meet the demands of the segments, so that they differ from competitors.
Holistic Marketing Guidance
While the first three guidelines already have limited use, the holistic marketing orientation is the most contemporary approach.
According to this philosophy, marketing is broad and works with the different areas of the company, with which it builds an interdependence.
Marketing & Sales
Until Kotler’s ideas came to market, marketing was widely seen as synonymous with sales. However, these areas have different functions.
The sales team works in the final stage of the buying day. Its role is to stimulate decision making when the customer is already more mature.
To get to that point though, it goes through the process of maturing with the marketing team, which has had the role of attracting stakeholders, tightening the relationship with them and nurturing them with content.
The separation between the areas, however, caused a schism. In many companies, Marketing and Sales do not talk and still dispute who should receive the laurels of sales.
The truth is that this rivalry does not bring any benefit to the business. In the holistic marketing perspective, the ideal is for the areas to work collaboratively for the good of the company.
Therefore, the term vendarketing was created, with the intention of promoting the integration and the alignment between these sectors.
In inbound marketing methodology, vendarketing helps you to extract the best results, optimize the resources of the sales process, and maintain cohesive communication with the lead throughout the funnel.
Product life cycle
One of the most important marketing concepts is the Product Life Cycle (CVP). Presented by Philip Kotler, he shows the harsh reality: nothing is forever.
This holds true for life, but also for products, for product categories, for brands and for markets. In general (not a rule), they go through four phases, which we will detail below.
Companies then need to adjust their marketing strategies to the cycle and balance their product portfolio to go through those stages with the best use and without harming their operations.
Let’s now see what the stages in the life cycle of a product are:
The first phase refers to the launch of the product on the market, after investing in research and development. Despite the optimism, we must act with caution.
Sales tend to be low, as the product is still being introduced, and high marketing launch, marketing, and education expenses inhibit profitability.
In the growth phase, the product has already been accepted in the market and reaches a high demand. With consumer education, the desire for the product tends to increase exponentially!
Profits also have a substantial increase, as revenue already begins to outpace advertising spending.
At maturity, sales and profits stabilize. The product is already known by most potential buyers, who no longer bring new customers.
Competitors are also on the scene, and the row over consumer attention has grown fiercer, which may also start lowering profits.
As nothing lasts forever, the phase of decline comes. It usually happens due to changes in the market, such as a new technology, the evolution of behaviors or the entry of a large competitor.
With profits getting smaller, it’s time to renew the product, invest in new solutions or simply take the item off the market (you also need to know when to leave the scene …).
4 Ps of Marketing: Understand the Marketing Mix
The 4 Ps concept of marketing, also called the Marketing Mix, is one of the best known in the field. This is an operational marketing methodology, that is, it was created to take the plans out of paper and put them on the street.
The 4 Ps, then, refer to the pillars of marketing tactics: Price, Square, Promotion and Product. They should be defined for each target segment the company chooses, from the brand positioning settings for each of them.
Currently, there are still some revisions of this methodology, which include new Ps or other letters, such as the 8 Ps of digital marketing. But now we are here to show what these four words stand for marketing.
The price of a product may seem like a number. But it says a lot about the positioning of a brand.
If you choose to have the cheapest price on the market, this decision influences the public’s perception of your product and the purchase decision.
Therefore, Price P must be defined with an eye on the projections of profitability and prices of competitors, but also on how the public will absorb this information.
In addition to the list price, you should also define the discount and installment policies, which also affect the customer’s perceptions and choices.
PO Square refers to the distribution of the product on the market.
After all, the places where the products are sold determine how the consumer will have access to them and influence their buying decision. If access is difficult, if the store is far from your home or the e-commerce is slow to deliver, for example, it may give up the purchase.
Therefore, you should think of a distribution that reaches your target audience in the most efficient way possible. Think about:
- distribution channels;
- number of intermediaries to the final customer;
- location of distribution centers;
- location of points of sale;
- logistics management.
The OP of Promotion encompasses all communication actions, which make the connection between the brand and the consumers and arouse interest in the product. The communication mix involves the following actions:
- public relations;
- Press office;
- direct marketing;
- digital marketing;
- among others.
The product is what the consumer can see, touch, experience with the brand, which is something intangible. So it is essential that the product conveys the image that the brand has propagated with the promotion – or the consumer experience will be frustrating.
In Product P, then the company should define points like these:
- functional attributes;
- emotional attributes associated with the product;
- functions it can perform;
- product design and packaging;
- level of production quality;
- branding of the product.
Types of marketing
There are several types of marketing . Different strategies, channels and approaches can be adopted by organizations. And each of them can serve to achieve different goals, talk to certain audiences and meet certain business needs.
Now, then, let’s look at some quite popular marketing types that you can apply to your business.
An inbound marketing strategy – or attraction marketing – does not make the company go after consumers to sell their products, as with traditional advertising. Instead, it tries to entice stakeholders to turn them into leads and then convert them into customers within what we call a sales funnel.
In this process, the creation of content relevant to the consumer is the main fuel to promote the relationship with the brand.
The HubSpot, for example, has become a reference in Inbound Marketing using this methodology.
The company produces a range of content to engage potential customers and then guide them through the funnel until they acquire their software.
Unlike Inbound, Outbound Marketing is an active approach to prospect customers.
The company identifies who has the potential to become a customer and uses different channels – such as banner ads, social ads, TV ads and phone calls – to reach out to those people.
To have effective results with this strategy, you need to invest in the segmentation and customization of the message. Otherwise, your approach will be massified, and you will annoy people who have no interest in what your business has to say – just think of the unwanted telemarketing connections to remember as the outbound marketing poorly planned for being inopportune.
Content marketing is not a new strategy. Companies have long been producing materials relevant to their consumers.
Want an example?
Brastemp released cookbooks when it began selling its microwaves. The intention was to educate and engage your audience, strengthen their relationship with them and generate more business opportunities.
It is with these same goals that Content Marketing is still used today. The difference is that this strategy gained a push of web 2.0, which popularized the production of content.
The same Brastemp, for example, is on the Internet today, with content on the YouTube channel and social networks for example, to connect with the current consumer.
Digital Marketing are the marketing strategies applied to electronic media – simple as well.
Websites, blogs, applications, social networks, e-mails, search engines and banners are not Digital Marketing alone – they are just channels you can use to communicate and deliver value to consumers.
Online action has brought many gains to companies. With the possibility of collecting a multitude of data, they gained power to segment the audience and measure results.
Even more interesting is that this is now possible for any company, even without astronomical budgets.
However, the difference between marketing as a whole and digital marketing becomes increasingly tenuous. After all, the world is all connected!
So, adopting digital marketing is no longer a choice – it’s a must for businesses.
Direct and indirect marketing
Although they appear to be opposites, direct and indirect marketing refers to different concepts.
Direct marketing – also called data marketing – is the use of a database to talk directly to a person. Examples of this are direct mailing, email marketing and telemarketing. In this type of strategy, personalization and relevance are rules not to pester people.
Already the indirect marketing refers to a brand disclosure that does not have advertising face. The intention is that the public does not realize that it is an intentional action of the company.
As well? It’s easy to understand when you think of one of the first games marketing actions: the insertion of McDonald’s kiosks in The Sims.
Instead of putting an intrusive banner, the company inserted the brand in the context of the game, without disturbing the experience of the players.
Marketing is not just for companies and organizations, you know? The concept can also be applied to people, or rather to their personal brand.
It is with a personal marketing strategy that you develop and reinforce the image you want to convey to the world about yourself, according to your values, principles, characteristics and abilities.
Thus, you are remembered more easily and become a reference in what you do.
Marta, voted six times the best soccer player in the world, is a good example. She is the greatest reference in women’s football in Brazil, not only because of her technical quality, but also because of the posture of simplicity that she displays on a daily basis in her Instagram account.
Marketing should target at all audiences that relate to the company , not just its customers. Hence, there is a type of marketing that looks into the business: the endomarketing.
The strategies it covers focus on engaging a company’s employees and generating value for them by creating a more engaging and motivating work environment.
Tetra Pak has a good example of endomarketing.
Every year, the company promotes the Excellence Award, which rewards ideas for process improvements and motivates employees to engage in innovative solutions. They can be nominated by colleagues in four categories: customer, innovation, operation and leadership.
Marketing of relationship
We live in a time when consumers have a myriad of brand choices to choose from and less and less time on their day to day. That’s why companies are investing in relationship marketing.
The intention is to tighten the bonds with the public and prove useful, not just approach it to sell a product.
To do this, you need to accompany consumers on their buying journey with interesting content that helps them mature their decision and get closer to the brand.
The construction company Tecnisa, for example, adopts several strategies to arouse the confidence of its public. Decision-making for the purchase of a property is long and complex, so the company needs to be present before, during and after the purchase.
Therefore, clients receive e-mails with photos of the works, receive gifts at every moment of construction and are informed with transparency on the step-by-step process.
The result is the increase in sales by appointment, even from clients who do not even live in their apartments.
Marketing in Social Networks
Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, Pinterest and other social networks have become essential channels for marketing. In the survey of Social Media Trends 2019 survey, 96.2% of companies said they were present in social networks.
Interactivity: this is the great asset of these platforms! The marketing in social networks are able to humanize a brand and strengthen the relationship with the public.
With the development of networks as business platforms, it is also possible to invest in sponsored posts and boost the results of the company’s digital presence.
Disney, for example, has created a campaign that shows well the power of social networks. The company decided to donate $5 to an institution for every photo their followers posted wearing Mickey’s ears with the hashtag #ShareYourEars.
Here’s a type of marketing where creativity gets a lot of space! After all, you need to be bold and innovative to get the audience’s attention and win their applause. That is why guerrilla marketing is also one of the most challenging.
But, when well-done, it tends to have a huge impact with great spontaneous disclosure.
Good cases in this area are not lacking. UNICEF, for example, had an unusual idea: to sell dirty water on a machine in the middle of New York.
The intention was to raise donations and draw attention to the diseases that can be caused by the consumption of untreated water, which is still common in several parts of the planet.
Social marketing strategies come within the context of Marketing 3.0, about which we speak. If consumers demand that companies assume their responsibilities for the future of the planet, they need to engage in social and environmental causes.
Thus, actions should have a positive impact on society and, at the same time, reinforce brand values to generate identification with the public.
But it is important to reinforce: you can not stay alone in the speech – you have to make an end-to-end commitment to the company.
There are currently several examples of social marketing. One cool case was Airbnb’s action We Accept. The campaign was launched amid controversy over the veto of immigrants by the US government in 2017.
Contrary to the decision, the company marked its position of inclusion of refugees and celebration of diversity.
The product marketing is a type of marketing focused on generating demand for a certain product.
The intention is to analyze the market and the competitors and define the marketing strategies – competitive differential, price, positioning, target audience, advertising etc. – in alignment with the strategic objectives of the business as a whole.
Nissin, leader in the instant noodle segment, is an example.
For Cup Noodles, she created teen-focused strategies (unlike her other products) such as launching new flavors, point-of-sale actions, and a unique Facebook and Instagram page and pages for the product.
The multilevel marketing is based on the creation of a network of resellers, who is the sales force of the company.
These resellers are encouraged not only to sell the products (direct profit), but also to raise new resellers to increase their earnings (indirect profit), since they will receive on the sales that they make.
Anyone who starts working with marketing already wants to think about what the product will be like or the ambiance of the store, right?
But before those definitions, companies should do an analysis of marketing environments.
That’s what we’re talking about when we say that a company is “market-oriented”, you know? The analysis of the market allows to create strategies more efficient, since it identifies the internal and external factors that can influence the performance of the company.
The context involves two types of environments: the microenvironment and the macroenvironment. Let’s see what are they?
The microenvironment involves the company and the sector in which it is inserted.
The analysis should start with the company itself, observing its potentialities and weaknesses, such as location, product mix, team, brand credibility, among others. It is important to realize that these factors are under business control.
Then the analysis must aim at the sector, which influences the performance of the company. Sector analysis involves competitors, suppliers, buyers, potential entrants and possible substitutes.
The chain’s relationships – such as the level of rivalry between competitors and the bargaining power of suppliers, which make up Porter’s 5 forces – determine the company’s position within its market.
In the macro environment, we are talking about forces that influence the company, but are more distant. They can be grouped into six major environments:
Trends related to these environments can strongly impact a business.
Uber, for example, is directly involved with the legal issues of the regions where it operates, because in many places the law prohibits the service it offers.
Another example is the adaptation of the Barbies to meet sociocultural changes. The dolls, which once followed only a pattern of beauty, now cover black, fat, redheads and people with disabilities.
Notice that the factors here are not controllable by the company. Therefore, it is up to it to monitor the external scenario and adapt its controllable (internal) variables to the context transformations.
This path is traversed through the marketing channels, which are responsible for the transmission of the product to its final destination. They are part of the Plaza P in the marketing mix we introduced earlier.
The intention is that this journey is traveled as quickly and efficiently as possible, so that the customer has access to the purchase in the place and in the expected term.
The marketing channels can be divided according to the number of levels (intermediary) through which the product passes:
- At level 0, the sale happens directly from the manufacturer to the consumer;
- At level 1, the product leaves the manufacturer and passes through the retailer (1) until it reaches the consumer;
- In level 2, the product leaves the manufacturer and passes through the wholesaler (1) and the retailer (2) until reaching the consumer;
- In level 3, the product leaves the manufacturer and passes through the seller (1), the wholesaler (2) and the retailer (3) until it reaches the consumer.
Consider, for example, Dell’s sales: they operate at level 0 when the consumer buys directly from the company’s website or through telesales. Already a travel agency can be understood as the level 1 retailer, since it sells tour operator packages (manufacturer) to the final customer.
Note also that the more levels the marketing channels have, the greater the capillarity of their distribution. On the other hand, bargaining relationships (which may impact the final price of the product) and the distancing of the manufacturer from the final consumer increase.
Strategies: How to Create a Good Marketing Plan
So let’s see how to make your marketing plan the best way. This planning can target the brand or a specific company product.
With this plan, the company will have a concrete tool to guide the application of its strategies and remain competitive. That is, the role of the plan is to guide the company from strategies to action!
But understand that the marketing plan is the planning documentation. Therefore, the analysis of the microenvironment and macroenvironment, besides the definition of the target segments and the positioning of the brand must come before the elaboration of the plan.
Then, the plan will show how your company will act on the scenario and according to its strategic definitions.
Now, then, look at the main points that should appear in the plan, but which may vary according to the needs of each business.
Strategic Planning Definitions
The marketing plan should begin with the definitions of the company’s strategic planning. This encompasses the brand’s mission, vision and values, as well as the company’s goals and objectives.
Description of Marketing Environment Analysis
Do you know that analysis of the environment we talked about earlier? It’s time to document the key insights and insights you’ve extracted from the observations.
The plan should address the main threats and opportunities of the external environment and the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment. You can use the SWOT analysis framework for this.
The marketing plan should also point out which target audiences the company will be working on, based on market segmentation, and which positioning it will adopt for each of them. At this point, it may also be interesting to create the persona with whom your strategies will communicate.
Definitions of the marketing mix for each segment
Then it is time to define the 4 Ps strategies of marketing: Price, Square, Promotion and Product. This should be done for each segment and according to the brand positioning for each one.
The execution schedule is essential to get the marketing plan off the paper. In this part, you must define a calendar, with dates and deadlines, in addition to those responsible for each activity and the resources that they will demand.
Defining performance indicators is one of the primary points of the marketing plan. It is with them that you will verify that your strategies have achieved the desired results in alignment with the strategic objectives of the company.
The marketer needs to work with good tools. They are essential to optimize the work, bring more efficiency, reduce failures and generate more intelligence for the marketing industry.
Now that we’re in the digital age, access to good tools is easier, as you can get these services in the cloud, which ensures more data security and accessibility.
Let us now show you which platforms, free or paid, are indispensable for your day to day life.
Having a good system of Customer Relationship Management can greatly improve the relationship with your customers, at all points of contact of the day of purchase. The RD Station CRM and Pipedrive are good examples of tools for this.
A marketing automation tool allows you to define automated actions for the entire sales funnel, such as triggering emails and publishing content. This is essential to increase the productivity of the team on a daily basis and scale up your sales. The RD Station and Hubspot can do a lot to help.
You can no longer imagine marketing without data analysis. They are essential for decision-making and risk reduction, as well as pointing to opportunities for performance improvement of strategies.
The Google Analytics is the most complete and well – known tool, but Hotjar can also help with their heat maps.
Email marketing is an essential communication channel for the relationship with the public and for the nutrition of leads. Work with tools that automate submissions and enable you to segment deliveries, customize messages, and create efficient layouts.
The MailChimp is a tool with many features that are quite affordable.
Want to reach the top positions of Google? So you’ll need the backing of tools that look at keywords, backlinks, and search engine rankings like SEMrush.
Google also offers a free tool that helps you analyze your own site, Google Search Console.
Promotion OP must also encompass paid media strategies on the web. The main ad platforms – Google Ads and Facebook Ads – offer a high level of audience segmentation and measurement of results.
Social Networking Management
Managing all your brand profiles on social networks can be quite labor intensive. However, a social network management tool facilitates this work by centralizing publication and monitoring in one place.
The MLabs, for example, works well for this.
Which company does not like to take a peek at what’s happening to competitors? There are several competition analysis tools on the web. SEMrush, for example, helps you understand the strategies your competitors use.
After all, is the marketer a marketer? In general, we do not use this expression because it has a pejorative tone, as if it were named someone who wants to sell at any cost.
Therefore, this professional can be called, simply, a marketing professional!
In many companies, he can work alone in the area – it’s the infamous “me-quipe” marketing, in which the marketer becomes a generalist. It meets all the demands, from creating posts for social networks to strategic planning of the company.
In this case, companies look for marketing analysts. The survey of Content Trends 2018 showed that this is the main position of marketing professionals in most of the companies interviewed (45.6%).
If you intend to be this professional, you need to have a versatile profile to do everything a little.
Especially in small businesses, you’ll have to learn fast and have a lot of proactivity to get your hands off the pie on your own, without waiting for a mentor – after all, the business owner has a lot of other things to think about.
In addition, the marketer needs to have an analytical, metrics-driven, and results-focused profile, as this will always be part of their day-to-day business, even if they seek expertise in some area.
However, most companies (36.4%) have 2 to 5 employees within the marketing team, a number that usually increases as the structure becomes more robust. In this case, teams break up into other roles that marketers can also do:
- social networking analyst;
- content analyst;
- SEO analyst;
- paid media analyst;
- manager or marketing coordinator;
- director of marketing (CMO);
- among other charges.
In these cases where the team includes several professionals, the manager looks for specialists in their areas. So if you want to pursue a career in marketing in larger companies, it is interesting to pursue specializations in the areas in which you are most interested.
But if you are the manager who is seeking information to set up a marketing team, it is important to understand the stages of a marketing team to build the right team for your business. To increase the maturity of your team, it is also essential to invest in training.
They ensure the constant qualification of employees, not only to improve performance in their positions, but also to be able to assume new positions in the hierarchy (including direction), which increases as the team grows.